2020 - 1 Issue

Original article

Enucleation After Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Patients With Uveal Melanoma

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Introduction: In the past enucleation was the treatment of choice for all the patients with uveal melanoma. Nowadays, we prefer glope-sparing treatment modalities, except for large tumors, tumors with extrascleral extension and painful blind eyes. Most of the patients perform radiotherapy or local resection techniques. In Slovak Republic, the only one possibility is a stereotactic radiotherapy on a linear accelerator LINAC. Nevertheless, enucleation after radiotherapy is necessary for some patients. The causes are postradiation complications, mainly neovascular glaucoma, tumor recurrence, tumor progression or patient´s decision.

Material and methods: The retrospective non-randomised study of 168 eyes of the patients with choroidal or ciliary body melanoma, who performed one-day session stereotactic radiosurgery at the linear accelerator LINAC during period 2007-2016. The data about postradiation complications were analysed based on the medical records of the patients and the data about enucleated eyes based on the histopathological findings.

Results: The occurence of enucleation after radiotherapy in our cohort was 17 % (28 patients), with median time period after radiotherapy 21,5 months. The most common cause was neovascular glaucoma (82 %), then tumor progression (14 %) and patient´s decision (4 %). The most common histopathological finding was spindle-cell melanoma.

Discussion: Others authors describe similar enucleation rate and causes. The histopathological findings indentified more viable melanoma cells in eyes enucleated for tumor progression in comparison with enucleation for other causes. Enucleation may be more difficult and the occurence of postoperative complications can be higher in the eyes after radiotherapy rather than primary enucleation.

Conclusion: The management of the patients with uveal melanoma is difficult, and requires the cooperation of ophthalmologist, oncologist, radiation physicist and pathologist. Even if we make effort to preserve the eye, enucleation after radiotherapy is necessary in some patients.