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Review

Forms of Ocular Larval Toxocariasis in Childhood. A Review

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Summary

The aim of this paper is to present an outline of forms of ocular manifestations of visceral larva migrans in children, as illustrated by the extensive photographic documentation. Ocular larval toxocariasis (OLT) has various clinical manifestations even in childhood age, in which age representation has an influence. The most common is presence of peripheral granuloma of the eye, frequently with a tractional vitreal streak leading from the retinal periphery to the optic nerve papilla. This is followed by granuloma of the posterior pole of the eye, usually reaching from the macular landscape to the central retinal periphery, always with vitritis. In children OLT may be manifested also in affliction of the optic nerve (cystic granuloma of the head of the optic nerve or neuropathy with vitreal reaction), fulminant endophthalmitis and in rare cases also diffuse chorioretinitis. The diagnosis rests upon a clinical ophthalmological finding, as well as laboratory examination of the levels of antibodies with potential eosinophilia. Histological examination may demonstrate spherical polypoid ossification in the choroid at the posterior pole of the eye as a consequence of fibrotisation and calcification, proceeding from the surrounding area of the absorbed larva. General combined treatment with antihelminthics and corticosteroids is arduous and does not always produce the desired effect in the sense of a satisfactory improvement of visual acuity. In differential diagnostics, manifestations of OLT in small children are still associated with retinoblastoma and a clinical picture of other intraocular diseases.