2021 - 4 Issue

Review

Immune-Mediated Intraocular Inflammation

Full Text links

Summary

Immune mediated inflammatory diseases are categorized into autoimmune and autoinflammatory. Autoimmune etiology is represented by autoreactive lymphocytes or autoantibodies, e.g. primary Sjögren‘s syndrome or rheumatoid arthritis. Ocular specific diseases with presumed autoimmune origin are sympathetic ophthalmia or birdshot chorioretinopathy. Autoinflammatory diseases are caused by mutations in regulatory genes for specific immunity. Hereditary periodic fevers represent monogenic autoinflammatory diseases; eye specific is Blau syndrome also named sarcoidosis with early onset.
This article reviews the actual knowledge about immune mediated uveitides, their immunological mechanisms and the possible trigger role of infection in autoimmune inflammation. Immune privilege provides a protection of the eye against any strong immune reaction to foreign antigen, based on physical, immune, humoral and molecular mechanisms. Antigens hidden within the eye are revealed in case of damage of hematoretinal barrier caused by infection or mechanical insult. These ocular antigens have not been set as tolerable during the development and immune reaction is initiated subsequently.
Current studies demonstrate that uveogenic trigger might be generated by own microbiome, particularly when dysregulated, so called dysbiosis. There is a known association between idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with ankylosing spondylitis and anterior uveitis in humans. Intensive research is focused on microbiome and immune mediated inflammatory disease to influence therapeutically the intestinal microbiome. The animal models are used to study the immunopathological mechanisms of uveitis and the new therapeutic strategies, because of relatively low incidence of immune mediated uveitis in humans.