Issue 2018 - 3

Case report

Congentinal Central Toxoplasma Chorioretinitis - Case Study

Summary

Congenital toxoplasmosis is a globally spread infectious disease caused by transplacental transmission of an intracellular parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The infection can cause serious multi-organ complications, and in the case of vertical transmission, can lead up to fetal death – depending on the stage of pregnancy at the time of infection and the overall condition of the mother’s immune system. Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus and intracranial calcifications are a typical triad of symptoms associated with the disease. Toxoplasmic chorioretinitis in particular is the most common ocular manifestation. If the central retina is affected, it can cause a severe impairment of central visual acuity or lead up to blindness in the child. Prenatal screening of this disease is presently voluntary in the Czech Republic. This article reports on a case study of a toxoplasmic chorioretinitis in a newborn child observed from the active stage and the development of the affected retina over time. Further is also reported on the diagnostics and the treatment of multi-organ complications which occurred in this patient. Ophthalmologic examination was performed after diagnosis of hydrocephalus, which revealed severe changes of retina. Hydrocephalus was then properly treated. An overview of the diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the screening options available in the Czech Republic compare with other countries is also presented in the report.

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