2020 - 4 Issue

Original article

Usage of Digital D Chart Test as a Modification of Amsler Grid in Ophthalmology and Optometry

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Aims: Metamorphopsia is important symptom of macular disease. The most common simple detection method of metamorphopsia is Amsler grid. Usually it is used monocularly with best correction for near. Patient should evaluate grid deformation and describe position of the deformity. This method is based on qualitative principle. For quantitative evaluation we can use Software D Chart (Thomson Software Solution). This instrument enables evaluate degree and position of the metamorphopsia in central visual field. Our goal was to establish M-score values in group of young healthy subjects without correction (M-score natural), with cylindrical spectacle lens (M-score SL) and in group of patients with age related degeneration (M-score ARMD).

Objects and Methods: We had 33 probands divided into 2 samples. The first sample contains 15 young probands with average age 23 years without any eye pathology. The second sample contains 18 patients with ARMD (7 with dry form and 11 with wet form). In our study we used software D Chart (Thomson Software Solution). This software was use in Acer PC with touchable screen. We note total M-score in right eye of all probands. Level for statistic evaluation was set on p = 0.05.

Results: Natural M-score values for young probands was: median 0, minimum 0, maximum 2.3. With cylindrical lens we got these values: median 25.2, minimum 3.6, maximum 41.6. In second sample with probands suffer from ARMD we got these values: median 0.8, minimum 0, maximum 29.4. Wilcoxon non-parametric test was used for statistical evaluation. We proved statistically significant difference between all variables. M-score natural vs. M-score SL showed p < 0.001, M-score natural vs. M-score ARMD showed p = 0.04 and M-score SL vs. M-score ARMD showed p < 0.001.

Conclusion: Our study showed statistically significant differences between variable M-score natural, M-score SL and M-score ARMD. We found that printed Amsler grid as well as its digital modification D Chart are suitable for determining metamorphopsia in central visual field. The main advantage of D Chart is quantitative evaluation of the test with M-score and digital registration of retinal changes during patient´s follow up.