Uveal melanoma (UM) is a deadly cancer that leads to metastatic disease in more than 50 % of the patients. Despite the improvement in the treatment of primary disease, there is still no effective therapy to prevent the development of metastases. Therefore, the disease requires intensive research to identify new treatment strategies.
In preclinical UM models, epigenetic drugs have been shown to increase the sensitivity of resistant tumour cells to treatment. The successful use of histone deacetylase inhibitors, which induced cell cycle arrest, reprogramming consistent with melanocyte differentiation and inhibition of tumour growth in preclinical models, demonstrates the role of epigenetic regulation in UM metastasis. Identification of epigenetic changes associated with UM development an progression could contribute to the discovery of more effective drugs that, in combination with traditional approaches, may yield better therapeutic results for high-risk patients.