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Review

Therapy of Uveal Melanoma. A Review

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Summary

The aim of intraocular melanoma therapy is to achieve local tumor control, reduce the risk of metastasis development, preserve the eyeball and possibly the visual function of the eye. The choice of therapeutic approach requires a comprehensive view and individual approach to each patient with uveal melanoma. Factors considered include local finding (location, tumor size and shape, tumor activity, central visual acuity, intraocular complications), age and the patient‘s overall physical and psychological condition, as well as the patient‘s wishes.
The most widely used method of uveal melanoma treatment is radiotherapy. The effect of radiation is caused by the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, the effect of radiation on the cell is manifested by cell death (depletion), or by a cytogenetic information change (mutation). Brachytherapy uses scleral applicators with radionuclide - ruthenium (Ru-106) applicators dominate in Europe and iodine (I-125) applicators in the USA. In external radiotherapy, the source of ionizing radiation is outside the patient‘s body. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy are used. In the Czech Republic, treatment is carried out using Leksell gamma knife or CyberKnife, while proton therapy dominates in the world. The development of serious radiation complications (radiation retinopathy, neuropathy, neovascular glaucoma, toxic tumor syndrome, etc.) should be considered.
Surgical therapy involves a variety of invasive procedures. Iridectomy is performed for iris melanoma. Anteriorly located choroidal melanomas and / or ciliary body melanomas can be resolved by transscleral resection (exoresection). For posterior choroidal melanomas, a combination of external tumor irradiation with pars plana vitrectomy is used. Enucleation is a method of choice in advanced tumors that cannot be effectively irradiated. Orbital exenteration is indicated in advanced tumors with extrabulbar spread or in relapsed tumor after previous enucleation.